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The Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in South America and in Latin America. It borders all the countries and territories in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also covers almost half of the continent’s land area. 

Brazilian currency has been renamed and redefined several times throughout its history. The three main currencies were the real, the cruzeiro, and the cruzado.

The real is the official currency of Brazil since 1994. It is subdivided into 100 centavos. The real replaced the cruzeiro real at a rate of 1 real to 2,750 cruzeiros reais. The Casa da Moeda mints the coins. 

The first series of real coins were introduced in denominations of 1 centavo, 5 centavos, 10 centavos, 25 centavos, 50 centavos, and 1 real in 1994. All were struck in stainless steel and featured the denomination and the head of the Republica. The 1 real coin was only produced in 1994 and was demonetized in 2003 due to how frequently it was being counterfeited. 

The second series of coins was introduced in 1998. The metals of the coins were changed: the 1 and 5 centavos were on copper-plated steel, the 10 and 25 centavos were on bronze-plated steel, the 50 centavos on cupronickel, and the 1 real was bimetallic with a nickel-brass ring and cupronickel center. The cupronickel was replaced by stainless steel and nickel-brass by bronze-plated steel in 2002. The coins featured the Southern Cross and different notable personalities—Pedro Alvarez Cabral, Tirandentes, Dom Pedro I, Deodoro da Fonseca, Jose Paranhos Jr., and the Efigie da Republica. The production of the 1-centavo coin was discontinued in 2005 but existing coins were still in circulation and in legal tender. 

In 2019, the Royal Dutch Mint produced 5 centavos and 50 centavos coins that have a distinctive letter “A” to distinguish them from coins minted by the Casa da Moeda.

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