British India / 1 Products

The British Raj was the historical period when the British Crown ruled the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The British Raj included British India (areas directly administered by the United Kingdom) and the princely states (areas ruled by indigenous rulers under British paramountcy). 

Coins under the British governance of the Indian subcontinent can be divided into two periods: the East India Company issues and the Imperial issued struck under direct authority of the crown. 

Early English coins were developed by the East India Company (EIC). The EIC adopted coinage and monetary systems patterned after three different presidencies: Western India (Bombay & Surat), South India (Madras), and the Eastern Province of Bengal (Calcutta). 

The coins of Bengal followed the Mughal pattern. The Madras coins were struck along South Indian lines in design, metrology (Pagoda), and Mughal designs. English coins of Western India developed Mughal and English patterns. In 1717 AD, the British obtained permission from Emperor Farrukhsiyar to produce Mughal money at the Bombay Mint. These coins were called Carolina (gold coins), Anglina (silver coins), Cupperoon (copper coins), and Tinny (tin coins). 

The British ruled most of India by the early 1830s. Due to this, the Coinage Act of 1835 was passed and enacted. From 1862 to 1947 (Indian independence), coins were circulated and minted under the direct authority of the British Crown, enabling the uniformity of coin designs. 

Because the coins were under the authority of the British Crown, the rulers of Britain were featured in coins. The following royalty were featured in Indian coins: William IV, Queen Victoria, Edward VII, George V, and George VI. 

The Indian Coinage Act of 1906 was passed. It enabled the establishment of Mints and standardized the value of coins. 

Due to the shortage of silver in the First World War, the British Government issued paper 1-rupee and 2 ½ rupee notes and replaced smaller denominations with cupro-nickel. The Second World War led to the usage of the Quaternary Silver Alloy, which was eventually replaced by nickel. 

India achieved independence in 1947. However, British India coins continued circulating until January 1950.

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