The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was an empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922. The history of the Ottoman Empire begins with the Seljuk Turks welcoming huge groups of Turks into their lands in Anatolia. The Seljuk’s left the steppingstones for Turkish culture and even the incorporation of Islam. This would create one of the most powerful empires in human history: The Ottoman Empire. It was also one of the first world empires and the longest lasting medieval Islamic state. At its height the empire spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa.

Map of Ottoman Empire Territory | Source: AS

Rise & Fall Of The Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was so powerful and had encroached so far into Southern and Central Europe, that it seemed on the verge of conquering the entire continent. If the Turks prevailed in the Battle of Vienna or the Second Battle of Moháos, the West might have had no choice but to conform to the Ottoman coinage conventions. As it was, it took the combined forces of the Holy League to drive the Turks from Europe.

Portrait of Mehmed IV | Source: Wikimedia

Damaging Defeats

Ottoman sultan Mehmed IV suffered repeated crushing defeats by the combined forces of Europe and was finally ousted in a military coup. His brother Suleiman Il then became sultan. Almost immediately, his forces were crushed by the Habsburgs at the Second Battle of Mohacs.

Portrait of Suleiman II | Source: Wikipedia

By 1700, the Ottoman Empire had lost a great deal of terrioty to its enemies. Its expansion into Europe was halted for good, its status as the most powerful state on earth was lost forever, and this coin-carried by Turkish forces into battle was not the template for European currency it might otherwise have been.

Currency From The Era

Ottoman Copper Mangir Coin, 1687 | Source: Banknote World

For centuries, the currency of the Ottoman Empire consisted of silver and gold coins. In the 17th century, after decades of war, precious metals were in short supply. As a result, hammered copper coins called mangirs were struck. To compensate for the lesser metal, Suleiman’s new coin design departed from the crude coins of the era, being well struck with a more aesthetically pleasing design.


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